study suggest that the Black family, including the Black church, the school, and the peer group, influenced the academic success of African-American adolescents in the study.
By exploring African-American students' strategies for success in environments that have been characterized as unwelcoming, educators can design new plans and approaches for better educational environments for African-American students in other school settings. This study suggests that these approaches must recognize the distinct, but overlapping facets of each of the spheres of socialization discussed here. Strategies must be developed to ensure that families are supported by the school and larger community in providing students with the guidance and encouragement required for their resilience and school success. Similarly, families and schools must help>lb /> students, especially adolescents, to select appropriate peer groups that can support and enhance their academic and social growth and development. Finally, strategies to improve the educational outcomes of African-American students must include ways for schools to work more closely with researchers, educators, families, and communities to create school environments that promote the development of positive academic and racial self-concepts for all students. Such collaborative efforts among families, schools, and communities may provide more students with the support they need to achieve their full potential in both public and private educational institutions.
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