Fostering Resilience in High School Classrooms: A Study of the PASS Program (Promoting Achievement in School Through Sport)
CRYSTAL MCCLENDON SAUNDRA MURRAY NETTLES ALLAN WIGFIELD University of Maryland, College Park
A diverse array of school reforms and youth development programs are attempting to mobilize processes that foster resilience among students placed at risk. Among these is Promoting Achievement in School Through Sport (PASS), an elective, yearlong class designed to assist learners in transferring to the academic arena skills learned through playing sports. An implicit goal of the program is to engage students, teachers, coaches, families, and communities in building protective environments for youth. In this chapter we (a) describe the PASS program, (b) present research findings that suggest that the program has a positive impact on student achievement, and (c) discuss features of the PASS classroom that may explain its impact on student achievement and resilience.
The lack of academic success among some minority students continues to be a serious problem of great urgency. A large proportion of poor AfricanAmerican and Hispanic students comprise those considered to be at risk for negative educational outcomes, such as illiteracy and school dropout ( Nettles, 1991). The educational picture is particularly dismal for AfricanAmericans. As African-American students go through school, some fall behind Whites in major academic areas such as mathematics, writing, and