The History of Turkey

By Frank W. Thackeray; John E. Findling et al. | Go to book overview

2

Ancient Anatolia

In Turkey, as elsewhere, the study of ancient history is inseparable from the politics of the modern nation so that the modern nation grew up alongside the academic study of antiquity. At the same time that people evinced the greatest awareness of and interest in their ancient past, the modern nation was forming; nations and their leaders have always been keenly interested in the potential uses of ancient history for modern purposes. It is not coincidental that during the 1870s, while Heinrich Schliemann conducted his celebrated excavations at the site of Troy, searching under Ottoman soil for the oldest layers of European civilization, the Ottoman Empire was fighting a war for its survival, and European statesmen were planning the Empire’s political destiny. During the next three decades, the discovery of the previously little known Hittite civilization of Anatolia slowly became public at the same time as Ottoman patriots and expatriates grappled with the meaning of their Turkishness and secretly planned the destiny of a Turkish nation. When the Turkish Republic was founded in the 1920s, its first president, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, harnessed this study of Anatolian antiquity to the project of building a national consciousness, concocting, and forcing on the public and universities alike fantastic theories about the relationship between the nationalist Anatolian present and the ancient Anatolian past.

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The History of Turkey
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Preface xv
  • Preface xxi
  • 1 - Turkey Today 1
  • 2 - Ancient Anatolia 23
  • 3 - The Turkish Conquest of Anatolia, 1071–1517 31
  • 4 - Anatolia and the Classical Ottoman System, 1517–1789 43
  • 5 - The Late Ottoman Empire, 1789–1908 55
  • 6 - Revolution and War, 1908–1923 73
  • 7 - The Early Turkish Republic, 1923–1945 91
  • 8 - Multiparty Democracy, 1945–1960 115
  • 9 - Military Intervention and the Second Republic, 1960–1980 133
  • 10 - The Military Republic, 1980–1993 157
  • 11 - Turkey after öZal 175
  • Notable People in the History of Turkey 187
  • Glossary 203
  • Bibliographic Essay 213
  • Index 223
  • About the Author 243
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