The History of Turkey

By Frank W. Thackeray; John E. Findling et al. | Go to book overview

5

The Late Ottoman Empire, 1789–1908

In the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire survived when several European powers possessed clear military advantages over it. The empire’s European rivals often supported independence movements of the Ottoman Empire’s subject peoples while at the same time developing clear economic interests in maintaining the empire. The Ottoman Empire possessed active and creative statesmen who were fully aware of its strengths as well as its weaknesses, a vibrant and developing economy, and a cultural production attuned to the empire’s place in the world and in history. The threat posed by Russia in the Balkan Peninsula and in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia provided the incentive for a series of fiscal and administrative reforms intended to strengthen the Ottoman military. The repercussions of these measures were felt in every area of Ottoman life during the nineteenth century.


SULTAN SELIM III AND THE NEW ORDER

Catherine the Great completed the Russian conquest of the steppe zone with the Russian victory of 1774 and the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, eliminating the Crimean Khanate and bringing the Russian Empire to the shores of the Black Sea. These victories were confirmed by Russian

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The History of Turkey
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Preface xv
  • Preface xxi
  • 1 - Turkey Today 1
  • 2 - Ancient Anatolia 23
  • 3 - The Turkish Conquest of Anatolia, 1071–1517 31
  • 4 - Anatolia and the Classical Ottoman System, 1517–1789 43
  • 5 - The Late Ottoman Empire, 1789–1908 55
  • 6 - Revolution and War, 1908–1923 73
  • 7 - The Early Turkish Republic, 1923–1945 91
  • 8 - Multiparty Democracy, 1945–1960 115
  • 9 - Military Intervention and the Second Republic, 1960–1980 133
  • 10 - The Military Republic, 1980–1993 157
  • 11 - Turkey after öZal 175
  • Notable People in the History of Turkey 187
  • Glossary 203
  • Bibliographic Essay 213
  • Index 223
  • About the Author 243
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