The History of Turkey

By Frank W. Thackeray; John E. Findling et al. | Go to book overview

7

The Early Turkish Republic, 1923–1945

After the victory in the War of Independence and the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, Mustafa Kemal Pasha enjoyed tremendous prestige as the national hero, the victor, the Ghazi. But the new nation faced enormous human problems of refugees and displaced people, of an economy crippled by war, and the breakdown of political institutions. It also faced profound disagreements about how to proceed under the circumstances.

In The Turkish Ordeal, her memoir of the War of Independence, novelist Halide Edib remembered a dinner meeting with Mustafa Kemal in the days after the victory outside of İzmir, in late August 1922. As Mustafa Kemal greeted her, she felt in his voice and in the shake of his hand “his excitement—the man with the will-power which is like a self-fed machine of perpetual motion.” She urged him to rest, now that the war had been won, but he spoke darkly of those who had opposed him. Halide Edib replied, “Well, it was natural in a National Assembly.” But he answered, “Rest; what rest?… No,we will not rest, we will kill each other” (Halide Edib [Adıvar], The Turkish Ordeal [New York and London, 1928], pp. 354–356).

A member of Mustafa Kemal’s inner circle of advisors, Halide Edib had been active in the Young Turks movement since 1908. She and her husband, the prominent scholar Dr. Abdülhak Adnan Adıvar, a member

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The History of Turkey
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Preface xv
  • Preface xxi
  • 1 - Turkey Today 1
  • 2 - Ancient Anatolia 23
  • 3 - The Turkish Conquest of Anatolia, 1071–1517 31
  • 4 - Anatolia and the Classical Ottoman System, 1517–1789 43
  • 5 - The Late Ottoman Empire, 1789–1908 55
  • 6 - Revolution and War, 1908–1923 73
  • 7 - The Early Turkish Republic, 1923–1945 91
  • 8 - Multiparty Democracy, 1945–1960 115
  • 9 - Military Intervention and the Second Republic, 1960–1980 133
  • 10 - The Military Republic, 1980–1993 157
  • 11 - Turkey after öZal 175
  • Notable People in the History of Turkey 187
  • Glossary 203
  • Bibliographic Essay 213
  • Index 223
  • About the Author 243
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