The History of Turkey

By Frank W. Thackeray; John E. Findling et al. | Go to book overview

11

Turkey after Özal

In the years after the death of Turgut Özal, Turkey struggled to reconcile the changes of the 1980s and early 1990s that were the legacy of the late president with the traditions of the Turkish Republic and with the circumstances of life in a modern democracy. A strong, stable government seemed illusive as Turkey was beset by economic difficulties, political scandals, the ongoing war against Kurdish rebels, and politicized Islamic revivalism. Although each of these issues was in many ways as old as the Republic itself, their particular manifestation after the death of President Özal owed much to the policies the late president had pursued.

Süleyman Demirel, Özal’s successor as president of the Republic, began a seven-year term in May 1993. The True Path Party picked the Minister of Economy Tansu Çiller to replace Demirel as party chief. In June 1993, Çiller, American-educated and a former economics professor, became Turkey’s first female prime minister. Within a month, the Kurdish cease-fire broke down and military operations against the PKK continued as before. PKK guerillas ambushed a commercial bus near Bingöl and murdered thirty-four people, of whom thirty-three were off-duty soldiers. Heavy new fighting erupted, the cease-fire was canceled, and hope of a political solution to the conflict seemed lost. Despite a reputation as a tenacious political operator, the inexperienced Çiller seemed no

-175-

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The History of Turkey
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Preface xv
  • Preface xxi
  • 1 - Turkey Today 1
  • 2 - Ancient Anatolia 23
  • 3 - The Turkish Conquest of Anatolia, 1071–1517 31
  • 4 - Anatolia and the Classical Ottoman System, 1517–1789 43
  • 5 - The Late Ottoman Empire, 1789–1908 55
  • 6 - Revolution and War, 1908–1923 73
  • 7 - The Early Turkish Republic, 1923–1945 91
  • 8 - Multiparty Democracy, 1945–1960 115
  • 9 - Military Intervention and the Second Republic, 1960–1980 133
  • 10 - The Military Republic, 1980–1993 157
  • 11 - Turkey after öZal 175
  • Notable People in the History of Turkey 187
  • Glossary 203
  • Bibliographic Essay 213
  • Index 223
  • About the Author 243
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