Fixing the Spy Machine: Preparing American Intelligence for the Twenty-First Century

By Richard R. Valcourt; Arthur S. Hulnick | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 4

Secret Operations

When the famous Chinese military philosopher Sun Tzu wrote about intelligence in his treatise The Art of War, much of the material actually concerned what we call today “covert action,” secret operations designed to carry out security or defense policy rather than collecting and analyzing information. Writers about intelligence and practitioners of the art have used other terms for covert action, including psychological warfare, active measures (Russian terminology), or “dirty tricks” (used mostly by those opposed to covert action). Covert action includes a variety of activities that deserve careful explanation and scrutiny because in democractic societies such activity is quite controversial. Certainly covert action has played an important role in American history, although it is a factor that is often ignored or misunderstood by historians, perhaps because so much of it remains buried in secret archives.

Covert action isn’t intelligence in the strict sense, yet intelligence services are almost always involved in carrying out such activity largely because they have the resources to do it. They have secret agents, safe houses, spy paraphernalia, and other tradecraft necessary to hide covert action, so that a government undertaking such action can deny the activity if it becomes public. This “deniability” has been especially important in democractic societies when questions are raised about the morality or legality of such operations. Of course, dictators and authoritarian governments do not have to worry about moral or legal issues, although they, too, enjoy the benefits of being able to deny responsibility for secret operations.

-63-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Fixing the Spy Machine: Preparing American Intelligence for the Twenty-First Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Acknowledgments xvii
  • Acronyms xix
  • Chapter 1 - Is the Spy Machine Broken? 1
  • Chapter 2 - Stealing the Secrets 23
  • Chapter 3 - Puzzles and Mysteries 43
  • Chapter 4 - Secret Operations 63
  • Chapter 5 - Catching the Enemy’s Spies 87
  • Chapter 6 - Stopping the Bad Guys 105
  • Chapter 7 - Managing and Controlling Secret Intelligence 129
  • Chapter 8 - Spying for Profit 151
  • Chapter 9 - Secret Intelligence and the Public 173
  • Chapter 10 - Fixing the Spy Machine 191
  • Bibliography 209
  • Index 217
  • About the Author 223
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 223

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.