The conceptual model of homework performance presented in chapter 1 consists of two major categories (motivation and preference), with six subcategories and 21 components. We developed an instrument designed to assess the components of homework performance and subjected it to an extensive validation process. Although teachers and parents may be able to observe certain patterns of learning preference and motivation levels of children, some component learning preferences are not readily observable and the behaviors associated with them are often misinterpreted. For example, a child who cannot sit quietly in his or her chair at a desk is often viewed as troublesome and not wanting to do the homework. However, it might be that this child needs to move about in the room or from room to room or prefers to do homework in an informal arrangement such as sitting on a sofa or in a lounge chair or sprawled on a rug on the floor.
It is a challenge to correctly identify the optimal conditions that will help students do their homework successfully and enjoyably, on one hand, and to recognize the reasons for student homework difficulties, on the other. In order to meet the challenge, it is important to have correct information about homework motivation and preference. To obtain correct information, a reliable and valid assessment instrument is needed. Because the information we seek is the pattern of self-perceived preferences, a self-report measure can be used in the assessment process. Whether the preferences for doing homework are the same as those ac-