Dangerous Places: Health, Safety, and Archaeology

By David A. Poirier; Kenneth L. Feder | Go to book overview

10

Former Manufactured Gas Plants and Other Coal-Tar Industrial Sites

Allen W. Hatheway

Former manufactured gas plants (FMGP) constitute an exciting and publicly interesting facet of the Industrial Revolution. These industrial facilities begin in Britain about 1805 (Birmingham), and concurrently in France, Belgium, and Germany. Baltimore was the site of the first American commercial activity in 1816. Over the next 150 years, the industry brought artificial lights to streets, homes, institutions, and factories, as well as provided affordable industrial fuel and the tar-chemical base for the world chemical industry.

Nearly all the gas-production residuals were high in volume and moderate to high in toxicity to humans and to the environment. Gas works were typically located in what today is high-value port, harbor, river, and/or rail locations and are frequently encountered in urban renewal and redevelopment projects. The number of former plants and their associated industrial facilities now exceeds 50,000 in the United States alone. Taken together, coal-tar sites had intimate contact with the ground and managed, leaked, spilled, or discharged tremendous daily quantities of wastewater and semivolatile tar and tar-water emulsions now representing significant environmental risk. Many efforts to assess their risk are fundamentally flawed due to incomplete attention to the subsurface geologic regime and now-forgotten operational histories. Archaeological exploration, investigation, and interpretation of such sites are essential in securing proper remediation and/or redevelopment of these sites in the context of current environmental protection efforts.

Former manufactured gas plants (FMGPs) represent a significant element of American history as well as a serious concern for protection of human health and the environment. The technology of converting organic matter to illumi-

-137-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Dangerous Places: Health, Safety, and Archaeology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 249

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.