In the battle of the sexes, you never meet what you can truly call a conscientious objector.
Biological, psychological/sociological, cultural, and religious influences on gender identity usually do not entail much conscious effort. Social movements try to persuade masses of people to realign their thinking; gendered social movements attempt to realign public thinking about gender identity. Women’s and men’s movements in America have had such agendas. Women’s and men’s groups have effectively come forward to influence cultural views of masculinity and femininity and have in turn made an impact on cultural perspectives. For example, in the early 50’s men were thought of as masculine and women as feminine. In the early twenty-first century, however, shifting images of men and women no longer immediately conjure up masculine images of men and feminine images of women. In fact, we often find masculine or androgynous women and feminine or androgynous men, as well as the stereotypical images of former years.
Cross-cultural studies depict gender roles in different ways that provide a broad spectrum of perspectives. For example, among the Arapesh ethnic group of New Guinea, both men and women exhibited what historically had been described as maternal, womanly, unmasculine parental roles and somewhat feminine sexual aspects. Both men and women exhibited personality attributes described as peaceful, cooperative, other-centered, and helpful and also showed a sense of reciprocity, responsive to the needs and