This book has been a good many years in the making, and many people have helped me to write it. Helen M. Morgan, as always, has helped much more than anyone else. She has worked with me from the beginning, and every draft of every chapter has had the benefit of her critical scrutiny. If the final result has any clarity of thought or expression, it is because of her patience and perception.
Parts of the book, in a different form, were delivered as the Commonwealth Lectures at the University of London in 1970. Part of chapter 3 appeared in the American Historical Review in 1971 as "The Labor Problem at Jamestown, 1607-18"; parts of chapters 5 and 6 appeared in the same year in the William and Mary Quarterly as "The First American Boom, Virginia 1618 to 1630"; and I tried out some of the ideas in chapter 18 in "Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox," in the Journal of American History in 1972. In these preliminary formulations I was able to benefit from the criticism of several colleagues and friends. F. J. Fisher, Jack Hexter, Peter Laslett, Lawrence Stone, and Joan Thirsk helped me to avoid some errors in what I have to say about English history. And I have profited in a variety of ways from discussions with Charles Boxer, John M. Blum, David B. Davis, William N. Parker, the late David Potter, and C. Vann Woodward.
For help in avoiding some of the pitfalls in compiling the statistical tables (I surely have not avoided all of them), I am grateful to a number of people: to John McCarthy and to Robert Luft for programming information for computer analysis, and to Lois Carr, Gloria Main, and Russell Menard, who read the first draft of the Appendix and gave valuable advice about it. I also wish to thank