AND LAZY ENGLISHMAN
ROANOKE dispelled some illusions, both among the Indians and among the English. The Indians of the Virginia region would not be likely again to mistake the English for gods. The English, on the other hand, would be wary of expecting to find America divided into good Indians and cannibals, with the good Indians eagerly awaiting English help. From this point we can perhaps date the beginnings of the English disposition to regard all Indians as alike. As yet, however, it did not follow that the only good Indian was a dead one. When the first permanent English settlers arrived in America in 1607, their sponsors had not given up hope of an integrated biracial community, in which indigent Englishmen would work side by side with willing natives, under gentle English government.
The sponsors were closely linked to the Roanoke venture. The Virginia Company of London came into existence in 1606, created by a charter from the king to Richard Hakluyt and "divers others," including one of London's leading merchants, Sir Thomas Smith. 1 Smith, the son of one of Raleigh's backers, became the treasurer of the new company, its principal officer and its moving force. It was a joint-stock company, and its members hoped for a profit, just as Raleigh's backers had. But they were barred, ostensibly at least, from the one source of wealth that had paid off for Raleigh: his only re-____________________