THE CLASSROOM CLIMATE FOR OPTIMAL ENGAGEMENT AND MOTIVATION
This section moves from motivational processes to the classroom context. A classroom where students are engaged does not just happen, but is the result of interactions among students, teachers, and curriculum. The following three chapters focus on teacher expectations and confidence, the social climate of the classroom, and instructional components that affect engagement.
Teachers' beliefs about their potential effectiveness in teaching in various conditions and their expectations about abilities of diverse students have been identified as powerful influences on students' achievements. An essential element is that students of diverse populations experience a shared sense of membership with the school and classroom. Challenges for the teacher are to establish conditions that allow for optimal work conditions, provide safety for all students, and time facilitate development of personal responsibility. Three interrelated components comprise the classroom instructional focus: task, incentives, and evaluation.