Societies of Brains: A Study in the Neuroscience of Love and Hate

By Walter J. Freeman | Go to book overview

Notes

2.1 Information theory applied to arrays of neurons

The process of sensation consists of expressing a momentary field of energy in a set of point values conveyed by the pulses of selected receptor cells. We can represent them with binary digits. Numerous variants of information theory have been devised to explain what brains might do with these pulses, seen by statisticians ( Brillinger 1981) as point processes. One variant views neurons as feature detectors by virtue of their synaptic connections, which are adaptively shaped by learning during growth (Section 6.2). Neural networks (Section 6.3), sees neurons as binary switches in nets performing symbolic computations ( McCulloch 1969). They are modeled with matrices ( Amari 1977) or tensors ( Pellionisz and Llinàs 1985). An example is their neural network for learning coordinated movements of limbs, which was simplified by Churchland ( 1986) to describe visual guidance of crab claw motion (Section 5.5).


2.2. Ecological maps of affordance and effectivity

According to Shaw et al. ( 1990), "Gibson, like Tolman, would disagree with Skinner ... that the organism is merely a 'throughput system'. For Tolman, cognition can embellish the stimulus, while for Gibson [ 1979], stimulus must be informative about the environment in ways that a stimulus, as a physiological 'goad' or a reflexive 'force', could never be. They both endow [the organism] with a complex interior - which Tolman cites as the residence of cognitive functions and Gibson as the seat of a tunable [not necessarily linear) information detection operator which resonates to qualitative environmental properties (i.e. affordances). For Gibson, the environment that surrounds an organism is real and objective for each organism" [p. 586]. They resolve a paradox they see, in combining past experiences and future goals, by proposing a dual Minkowski space with the two cones of past and future melded at the apex of the present, and:

... an environment of information which dynamically links a socially invariant exterior with both a biologically invariant interior frame, on the one hand, and with a still more exterior physically invariant frame on the other. That psychological inverse dynamics must couple energy with information across a frame exterior (observable) to one and

-159-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Societies of Brains: A Study in the Neuroscience of Love and Hate
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Societies of Brains - A Study in the Neuroscience of Love and Hate *
  • Acknowledgements *
  • Prologue 1
  • Chapter 1 - Brains and Minds 9
  • Chapter 2 - Nerve Energy and Neuroactivity 27
  • Chapter 3 - Sensation and Perception 44
  • Chapter 4 - Intention and Movement 68
  • Chapter 5 - Intentional Structure and Thought 93
  • Chapter 6 - Learning and Unlearning 111
  • Chapter 7 - Self and Society 135
  • Epilogue 155
  • Notes 159
  • References 177
  • Index 197
  • Glossary of Terms Used with Special Meanings [page] 203
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 204

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.