The following is a list of references and secondary sources consulted in the preparation of this book. Because this is primarily a work of synthesis from a geopolitical perspective, I have drawn on the scholarly expertise of numerous authors for the bits of information pieced together here to form a geopolitical mosaic. Because the geopolitical perspective is not yet well developed among historians, I am unable to refer the reader to any single one of the works listed below for further elucidation of the premises and theses of this book.
Agathangelos. History of the Armenians. Translation and Commentary by Robert Thomson. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1976.
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames and Hudson, 1984.
Allen, R. E. The Attalid Kingdom: A Constitutional History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Ammianus Marcellinus. 3 vols. Translated by John C. Rolfe. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935.
Appian of Alexandria. Appian’s Roman History. Vol. 2. Translated by Horace White. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1912.
Arrian. Anabasis Alexandri. Vol. 1. Translated by E. Iliff Robson. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1929.
Badian, E. Roman Imperialism in the Late Republic. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1968.
Baikie, James. A History of Egypt. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan, 1929.
Baramki, Dimitri. Phoenicia and the Phoenicians. Beirut: Khayats, 1961.
Barker, John W. Justinian and the Later Roman Empire. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.
Bengtson, Hermann. The Greeks and the Persians: From the Sixth to the Fourth Centuries. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969.
Benjamin, Samuel G. W. The Story of Persia. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1896.