Portions of this chapter were adapted from the author’s article “New Wine in Old Wineskins: From Organic to Complex Knowledge Management through the Use of Story,” published in the journal Emergence.
• Separation: steer to avoid crowding local flockmates
• Alignment: steer toward the average heading of local flockmates
• Cohesion: steer to move toward the average position of local flockmates
In the boids model (and related systems like the multi-agent steering behavior demos) interaction between simple behaviors of individuals produce complex yet organized group behavior. The component behaviors are inherently nonlinear, so mixing them gives the emergent group dynamics a chaotic aspect. At the same time, the negative feedback provided by the behavioral controllers tends to keep the group dynamics ordered. The result is life-like group behavior. For further information see Levy 1992.