Dictionary of Theories, Laws, and Concepts in Psychology

By Jon E. Roeckelein | Go to book overview

H

HABIT/HABIT FORMATION, LAWS/PRINCIPLES OF. The principle of habit may be defined as any instrumentally learned response that occurs with regularity and occurs in response to specific environmental events. In some cases, the habit is connected to a number of frequently occurring stimuli while, in other cases, habits may be connected to stimuli that infrequently occur (Pettijohn, 1986). The concept of habit/habit formation has a long history in psychology (Aristotle considered habit to be of basic importance in the development of one’s morality; Warren, 1934), where it originally referred only to motor or physical patterns of behavior (e.g., James, 1890; Baldwin, 1894), and has appeared most recently in the learning theories of Hull (1943, 1952) and Spence (1956, 1960) as a central term in their approaches where habit (‘‘response tendency’’) interacts with drive to produce behavior and where learning was considered to be the organization and accumulation of response habits. However, currently, the concept of habit has been given less attention because most psychologists today acknowledge that it is better defined in terms of operational definitions, processes of acquisition, and generalization as well as other factors that directly influence habits, especially the role of various environmental cues in habit formation. When habit is defined within the context of personality psychology, it refers to a pattern of activity that has, through repetition, become fixed, automatic, and easily carried out. In this case, habit is close in meaning to the concept of trait (i.e., any enduring characteristic of an individual that may serve in the role of a theoretical entity as an explanation for the observed regularities/consistencies in behavior; Reber, 1995). When habit is defined within the area of ethology (i.e., the study of animal behavior), it usually refers to a pattern of action that is characteristic of a particular species of animal and where an innate or species-specific behavior pattern is implied (as opposed to a ‘‘learned’’ behavior). The term habit formation has presented some semantic problems, historically, where it has often been used as a synonym for learning,

-224-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Dictionary of Theories, Laws, and Concepts in Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Abbreviations xvii
  • A 1
  • B 64
  • C 87
  • D 128
  • E 154
  • F 180
  • G 199
  • H 224
  • I 250
  • J 273
  • K 279
  • L 286
  • M 317
  • N 338
  • O 349
  • P 356
  • Q 395
  • R 396
  • S 418
  • T 451
  • U 463
  • V 466
  • W 474
  • X 485
  • Y 486
  • Z 489
  • Appendix A 495
  • Appendix B 521
  • Selected Bibliography 527
  • Subject Index 529
  • About the Author 549
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 549

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.