KAMIN EFFECT. See MOWRER’S THEORY; BLOCKING, PHENOMENON/EFFECT OF.
KARDOS EFFECT. See PERCEPTION (I. GENERAL), THEORIES OF.
KELLEY’S ATTRIBUTION THEORY. See ATTRIBUTION THEORY.
KELLEY’S PRINCIPLE OF COVARIATION/CORRELATION. See ATTRIBUTION THEORY.
KELLY’S PERSONAL CONSTRUCT THEORY. The American psychologist George A. Kelly (1905–1967) developed the personal construct theory of personality, which emphasizes the ways in which individuals interpret or construe events, and advances the viewpoint that each person unwittingly takes the role of ‘‘scientist’’ by observing events, formulating concepts to organize phenomena, and attempting to predict future events. According to Kelly (1955, 1963), people conduct mental ‘‘miniexperiments’’ in order to interpret and understand their own experiences. In this sense, people are actively engaged in the construction of their own subjective worlds, and one’s perceptual processes are directed by the way one anticipates future events. The theory says that people are viewed as active and future-oriented, rather than passive or merely reactive, and they develop certain concepts, categories, and constructs with which to classify their experiences. With this approach, a concept such as guilt may be defined as the realization that the person has done something that he or she would not have predicted on the basis of the constructs that he or she used to describe himself or herself, and a concept such as hostility maybedefined as a continuing and futile effort to find positive evidence for something that has already been recognized as a failure. Kelly’s theory has two key features: it deals