Profit Centers in Industrial Ecology: The Business Executive's Approach to the Environment

By Ronald S. Smith Jr. | Go to book overview

Glossary

b
Ballast—A device which provides the starting voltage to operate fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge lamps. The ballast also regulates the current during lamp operation.

c
Contrast—The relationship between the light level of an object and its background.
Cost Allocation—A firm’s cost accounting system is used to track and allocate production costs to a product or process line, principally for budgeting (i.e., operational budgeting) and pricing. When all costs for waste management, regulatory compliance and pollution control are properly allocated to processes or product lines, the cost accounting system provides a source of data for TCA.
Cost of Quality (COQ)—All the resources expended for appraisal costs, prevention costs, and both internal and external failure costs of activities and cost objects. In environmental accounting the COQ model can be applied to environmental COQ for objective-setting and measuring. For example, recycling activities can significantly reduce disposal costs.

d
Direct Cost—A cost that is traced directly to an activity or a cost object. For example, the material issued to a particular work order or the engineering time devoted to a specific product are direct costs to the work orders or products. An example would be the use of chemicals in production of a single product. However, it would be indirect in the production of several products.
Disability Glare—Glare that interferes with performance.
Discomfort Glare—Glare that does not interfere with performance.
Discount Rate—The interest rate (sometimes called the Present Value Factor) used to discount future cash flows to their present values. This represents the rate of return that could be earned by investing in a project with risks comparable to the project being considered. Federal facilities generally use a discount rate determined by the Office of Management and Budget.

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Profit Centers in Industrial Ecology: The Business Executive's Approach to the Environment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - Overview of U.S. Environmental Regulation 9
  • Chapter 2 - Pollution Prevention 19
  • Chapter 3 - Workplace Environment 101
  • Chapter 4 - Environmental Management Systems 151
  • Chapter 5 - On-Site Case Studies, Environmental Management 207
  • Conclusion 235
  • Appendix I 243
  • Appendix II 245
  • Glossary 249
  • Selected Bibliography 269
  • Index 271
  • About the Author 276
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