KHAYYĀM, ‛UMAR.See ‛UMAR KHAYYĀM.
KILWARDBY, ROBERT(C. 1215–1279). English scholar and prelate, Robert Kilwardby was born c. 1215, perhaps in Yorkshire. He studied in Paris around the years 1231–1237 and taught at the faculty of Arts until 1245; Roger *Bacon was probably one of his students. Several didactic works of logic, grammar, and ethics belong to this period; they provide an insight on the teaching curriculum and methodology in the arts faculty. Having returned to England, he entered the Dominican Order and studied theology at Oxford until 1256, when he became regent master in theology at Blackfriars, the Dominican house in Oxford. Among the writings he composed there, De ortu scientiarum was one of the first expositions in the West of the Aristotelian division of sciences and had great notoriety. Kilwardby’s Questions on the four books of *Peter Lombard’s Sentences show a general Augustinian inspiration, even when presenting Aristotelian doctrines.
Kilwardby rose to considerable prominence inside the Dominican Order and the English Church. He was elected prior provincial in England in 1261 and a second time in 1272. In the same year, Pope Gregory X named him archbishop of Canterbury, the highest ecclesiastical position in England. The duties of this office included supervision of university life. In 1277, he prompted the Oxford masters of theology to issue a condemnation of thirty propositions of grammar, logic, and natural philosophy, the last targeting the doctrine of the unicity of substantial form in substances.
A respected theologian himself, Kilwardby reacted against the Aristotelism of Thomas *Aquinas within the university and the Dominican Order. After the death of *Henry III of England, Kilwardby emerged as a supporter of political stability; he proclaimed *Edward (I) the new king of England and solemnly