Deregulation and Development in Indonesia

By Farrukh Iqbal; William E. James | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
World Bank (2000) reports the actual value of public and private external debt was substantially higher than $100 billion and was really $136 billion. Debt service payments were actually 35 percent of exports in 1997.
2.
McKinnon (1991), for example, suggests the following sequence of deregulation in the banking industry. First, commercial banks should be tightly monitored and regulated. This may include temporary credit rationing. Second, efforts should be made to recapitalize the existing banks and their clientele. Third, during the transition period, the banking industry should be temporarily closed to new entrants, both domestic and foreign, since they are not burdened with low yield loans and can easily out-compete the preexisting banks.
3.
Personal correspondence between one of the authors and Soedradjad confirms his strong opposition to the ideas of Professor Hanke regarding the appropriateness of a currency board system for Indonesia. A leading Japanese expert on Indonesia and its external debt, Professor Shinichi Ichimura, has also expressed reservations to the authors regarding Hanke’s views as applied to Indonesia. The reason Suharto chose to dismiss Soedradjad remains unclear, however.
4.
Fujita and James (1997) and James and Fujita (2000) estimate the employment effects of manufactured exports in Indonesia from 1980–1990 and 1985–1995.
5.
Krugman (1993, p. 147) points out:“…evidence suggests that protectionist economies have a less equal income distribution than those with freer trade.”
6.
Labor markets in Indonesia appear to be quite flexible, so that increases in external demand may manifest themselves more in gains in real wages than in the volume or quantity of employment.
7.
Data are from Badan Pusat Statistik downloaded from www.bps.go.id.
8.
Bird (1999) estimates the four-firm concentration ratio (CR4) in Indonesian domestic industry to have declined from 64 percent in 1975 to 54 percent in 1993. The CR4, when adjusted for foreign trade, falls to 41 percent in the latter year, indicating that import competition is quite important in limiting potential for anti-competitive behavior in Indonesia.

REFERENCES

b

Bird, Kelly (1999) “Concentration in Indonesian Manufacturing, 1975–93,” Bulletinof Indonesian Economic Studies, 35 (1) (April), pp. 43–73.

Blejer, Mario, Alain Ize, Alfredo Leone, and Sergio Werlang (eds.). (2000) Inflation Targeting in Practice, (International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC).


d

Dick, Howard (2000) “Representations of Development in 19th and 20th Century Indonesia: A Transport History Perspective,” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 36 (1) (April), pp. 185–207.

-202-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Deregulation and Development in Indonesia
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 208

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.