Extensive work is already underway to improve coordination with state and local law enforcement agencies, emergency planning groups, and a wide range of different responders. A number of regional centers have been set up. Federal agencies and state and local governments have been involved in a range of exercises. There has also been an increasing effort to involve the private and civil sectors, particularly in areas like health care, the media, and utilities.
There are, however, no clear measures of the scope and effectiveness of these efforts to date, and state and local authorities and private-sector capabilities differ sharply even within major metropolitan areas. In many cases, the coordination effort has not gone beyond command post exercise—like activities whose main purpose has been to educate state and local actors in the generic risk of attacks.
No attempt has been made to create anything approaching an integrated analysis of federal, state, and local expenditures and activities. The problems created by a lack of coordinated federal planning, programming, and budgeting—and the lack of future year plans—are far greater in trying to analyze federal, state, and local efforts than they are within the federal government. What is not clear, however, is whether it is feasible to even attempt the creation of such a planning, programming, and budgeting effort. At this point, it is unclear whether it is possible to create and maintain more than a highly selective catalog of federal, state, and local capabilities in critical aspects of homeland defense.