Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the 17th Century

By Michael Windelspecht | Go to book overview

conjectural, scientific laws are contrived, scientific theories are all false, scientific facts are fickle, and scientific truths are relative. These volumes belie postmodern deconstructionist assertions that no scientific idea has greater validity than any other idea, and that all “truths” are a matter of opinion.

For example, in 1992 the plurality opinion by three jurists of the U.S. Supreme Court in Planned Parenthood v. Case restated the “right” to abortion by stating: “at the heart of liberty is the right to define one’s own concept of existence, of meaning of the universe, and of the mystery of human life.” This is a remarkable deconstructionist statement, not because it supports the right to abortion, but because the Court supports the relativistic premise that anyone’s concept of the universe is whatever that person wants it to be, and not what the universe actually is based on: what science has determined by experimentation, the use of statistical probabilities, and empirical inductive logic.

When scientists develop factual knowledge as to the nature of nature they understand that “rational assurance is not the same thing as perfect certainty.” By applying statistical probability to new factual data this knowledge provides the basis for building scientific hypotheses, theories, and laws over time. Thus, scientific knowledge becomes self-correcting as well as cumulative.

In addition, this series refutes the claim that each historical theory is based on a false paradigm (a methodological framework) that is discarded and later is just superseded by a new more recent theory also based on a false paradigm. Scientific knowledge is of a sequential nature that revises, adds to, and builds upon old ideas and theories as new theories are developed based on new knowledge.

Astronomy is a prime example of how science progressed over the centuries. Lives of people who lived in the pre-historical period were geared to the movement of the sun, moon, and stars. Cultures in all countries developed many rituals based on observations of how nature affected the flow of life, including the female menstrual cycle, their migrations to follow food supplies, or adaptations to survive harsh winters. Later, after the discovery of agriculture at about 8000 or 9000 B.C.E., people learned to relate climate and weather, the phases of the moon, and the periodicity of the sun’s apparent motion to the Earth as these astronomical phenomena seemed to determine the fate of their crops.

The invention of bronze by alloying first arsenic and later tin with copper occurred in about 3000 B.C.E. Much later, after discovering how to use the iron found in celestial meteorites and still later, in

-xii-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the 17th Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Acknowledgements xv
  • Introduction xvii
  • Experiments, Inventions and Discoveries 1
  • A 3
  • B 15
  • C 34
  • E 54
  • F 64
  • G 70
  • H 81
  • J 109
  • K 115
  • L 121
  • M 148
  • N 173
  • O 177
  • P 187
  • S 201
  • T 224
  • V 241
  • Appendix 245
  • Glossary of Technical Terms 247
  • Selected Bibliography 257
  • Subject Index 261
  • Name Index 267
  • About the Author 271
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 271

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.