The Papers and the Critics
Before beginning a detailed examination of what the critics wrote, it is necessary to sort out the journals in which they wrote and, indeed, just who the critics themselves were. The lists of journals and critics provided in this chapter are intended to serve as a guide for reference in the following chapters.
The purpose of the first section of this chapter is to list the various journals and papers from which the feuilletons and other items of journalism have been taken, in order to give a brief overview of their respective policies. Circulation figures are given, where known. These should be seen in the context of an increasing population (the population of Vienna being between the 1,364,548 recorded in 18901 and the 1,674,57 recorded in 19002) and improving literacy rate. The Austrian--Cisleithanian--part of the empire had 13,258,452 people who could read and write, 1,031,624 who could only read, and 9,605,337 who were illiterate (= c.60% with basic literacy) in 1890,3 and 16,067,972 who could read and write, 778,782 who could read only, and 9,303,945 who were illiterate (= c.64.5% with basic literacy) in 1900.4 It would, moreover, not be unreasonable to suppose that a major urban centre such as Vienna would have a higher literacy rate than more isolated rural areas. The second section of the chapter will deal with the critics.
In 1896-7, among the journals published in Vienna devoted entirely or largely to music, three, the Deutsche Kunst- und Musikzeitung, Neue Musikalische Presse, and Österreichische Musik- und Theaterzeitung offered significant coverage of the musical events also dealt with by the newspapers. These journals are essential sources of detailed accounts of musical events, since with their number of critics and the lack of competition for____________________