Encyclopedia of African American Business History

By Juliet E. K. Walker | Go to book overview

Introduction

The Encyclopedia of African American Business History has two purposes: to illuminate the historic continuity of black business in America from the colonial era to the post–civil rights era and to underscore the diversity of black business activities from slavery to freedom. Historically, business activities have provided African Americans with their greatest economic success. As George Fraser, a leading promoter of black business in the late twentieth century, has said: ‘‘Success Runs in Our Race.’’ Yet while the names of multimillionaires John H. Johnson of Ebony and Berry Gordy, founder of Motown Records, are recognized by most black Americans, and many whites as well, other leading black entrepreneurs are less well known. Simply put, black business history has remained peripheral in the scholarly study of the African American experience. Rather, the oral black history tradition and the black press have contributed more to sustaining the collective memories of black business activities and leading black entrepreneurs than the published scholarly record. Indeed, recognition of the icon of black business history, the early twentieth-century millionaire hair care products manufacturer Madame C. J. Walker, in a U.S. postal stamp in 1997 reflects the sustaining power of the black written and oral history in the public record.

Incontrovertibly, slavery remains the defining experience for blacks in America. Even in the closing decade of the twentieth century, full freedom from racism and complete equality for the descendants of former slaves have yet to be obtained. Yet in their continuing search for freedom, the agency of blacks in forging their own economic liberation through business activities and entrepreneurship has had a long tradition. Even during slavery, leading black entre-

-xiii-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encyclopedia of African American Business History
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • A Note on Using the Encyclopedia xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • A 1
  • B 54
  • C 124
  • D 178
  • E 198
  • F 226
  • G 267
  • H 282
  • I 293
  • J 325
  • K 351
  • L 355
  • M 365
  • N 397
  • O 439
  • P 443
  • R 463
  • S 480
  • T 553
  • U 575
  • W 578
  • Chronology of Black Business History 615
  • Select Bibliography 649
  • Index 661
  • About the Editor and Contributors 715
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 721

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.