A Short History of Indonesia: The Unlikely Nation?

By Colin Brown | Go to book overview

Note on transcription

The process of standardising the spelling of Indonesian words, and especially place names, is of relatively recent origin, and still incomplete. Since 1945 there have been two revisions of the spelling system used for Indonesian, the most recent one, in 1972, standardising Indonesian and Malaysian spellings. The main changes which follow from this revision are that the old ‘dj’ was changed to ‘j’ (Djakarta to Jakarta), the old ‘j’ to ‘y’ (Jogjakarta to Yogyakarta) and the old ‘tj’ to ‘c’ (Atjeh to Aceh). The pronunciation of this revised spelling follows the logical pattern for English speakers, except that the ‘c’ is pronounced as if it were written ‘ch’. Words that have been introduced into Indonesian from Arabic, Sanskrit or old Javanese are sometimes found with variant spellings, depending on the original romanisation. Thus, for example, the organisation I have referred to as Nahdatul Ulama is sometimes rendered as Nahdlatul Ulama. The classical kingdom of south Sumatera which I call Srivijaya is sometimes rendered as Sriwijaya (and under an older spelling convention, as Srividjaja or Sriwidjaja). The classical old Javanese text Negarakrtagama is sometimes spelled as Negarakertagama.

I have not changed the spelling of personal names to conform to contemporary orthography unless the person concerned has done so him or herself. Thus I have retained Tjokroaminto (not changing it to Cokroaminoto) and Sjahrir (not Syahrir). However the names of Indonesia's first two Presidents I have spelled as Sukarno and Suharto even though at the time they were born their names were spelled as Soekarno and Soeharto, because both used the revised forms in official contexts.

I have generally used the spelling of place names currently in use in Indonesia, although this may at times be unfamiliar to the English-speaking reader. Thus, for instance, I have used Aceh rather than Acheh, Sumatera rather than Sumatra, Makasar rather than Makassar. I have also used Indonesian place names in preference to the ones often used by foreigners: thus Kalimantan rather than Borneo, Sulawesi rather than Celebes.

Finally, a number of places have had their names changed, or their spelling altered over the centuries: Jayakarta became Batavia, then Djakarta and then Jakarta; Makasar was once called Ujung Pandang; Yogyakarta has been spelled as Jogjakarta and Djokdjakarta. In all cases, I have used the current terminology and spelling except where quotations are drawn directly from other documents.

-xviii-

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A Short History of Indonesia: The Unlikely Nation?
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Acronyms xiv
  • Glossary xvi
  • Note on Transcription xviii
  • 1 - The Indonesian Context 1
  • 2 - The Rise of States 1–1500 Ce 11
  • 3 - The Age of Commerce: 1400–1700 29
  • 4 - Economic Demise, Political Decline:1600–1800 49
  • 5 - Establishment of Empire: 1800–1900 72
  • 6 - Times of Change 1900–1945 104
  • 7 - From Revolution to Authoritarian Rule 1945–1957 156
  • 8 - Guided to Pancasila Democracy 1956–1998 185
  • 9 - Reformasi: the Post-Suharto Era? 225
  • Bibliographical Essay 247
  • Notes 260
  • Index 263
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