Window on Freedom: Race, Civil Rights, and Foreign Affairs, 1945-1988

By Brenda Gayle Plummer | Go to book overview

Notes
1
Keesing's Contemporary Archives (KCA) (London: Longman, 1963–64), 14:19463; Brubeck to Bundy, 27 May 1963, folder: Africa, General, 6/63, box 3, National Security Files—Countries—Africa, John F. Kennedy Library, Boston. King Hassan II of Morocco was absent from the meeting out of concern that his presence would be construed as recognition of Mauritania. Mauritania's president was present at the meeting, and Morocco had previously claimed sovereignty over Mauritanian territory. According to KCA, Togo's president was absent because “no agreement had been reached on the question of his country's admission.” South Africa was not invited to the meeting.
2
Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988), 758–63.
3
Ibid., 764–65; David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (New York: Vintage Books, 1986), 267–68; United States Information Agency (USIA), “Reaction to Racial Tension in Birmingham, Alabama,” 13 May 1963, R-85-63, Record Group (RG) 306, National Archives (NA); John Walton Cotman, Birmingham, JFK, and the Civil Rights Act of 1963: Implications for Elite Theory (New York: P. Lang, 1989), 100–102.
4
Addis Ababa to Secretary of State, 23 May 1963, folder: Civil Rights, 6/19/63– 7/9/63, National Security Files, Subjects, box 295, Kennedy Library (quoting Obote letter); KCA, 14:19465. At the State Department's urging, President Kennedy had sent a congratulatory message to the conference. It was expected that many other nations, including the Soviet Union, would send such communications. Obote's letter was in response to Kennedy's message. See Brubeck to Bundy, 11 May 1963, folder: Africa, General, 5/63, box 3, National Security Files—Countries—Africa, Kennedy Library; Department of State to American embassy, Addis Ababa, 17 May 1963, folder: Africa, General, 5/63, box 3, National Security Files—Countries—Africa, Kennedy Library.
5
Addis Ababa to Secretary of State, 23 May 1963, quoting Obote letter.
6
Mary L. Dudziak, “Desegregation as a Cold War Imperative,” Stanford Law Review 41 (Nov. 1988): 61–120; President's Committee for Civil Rights, To Secure These Rights (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947).
7
Mary L. Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 47–78.
8
Dwight D. Eisenhower, “Radio and Television Address to the American People on the Situation in Little Rock, September 24, 1957,” Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1957 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1958), 694; Dwight D. Eisenhower, Waging Peace, 1959–1961: The White House Years (New York: Doubleday, 1965), 172; Mary L. Dudziak, “The Little Rock Crisis and Foreign Affairs: Race, Resistance, and the Image of American Democracy,” Southern California Law Review 70 (Sept. 1997): 1641–1716. In his memoirs, Eisenhower noted that one of the reasons for his action in Little Rock was the need to protect the nation's international image. Eisenhower, Waging Peace. Other factors included the need to maintain the rule of law in the context of challenges to federal authority. See Robert F. Burk, The Eisenhower Administration and Black Civil Rights (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984), 185–86; James C. Duram, A Moderate among Extremists: Dwight D. Eisenhower and the School Desegregation Crisis (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1981), 143–72. For a broad-based approach to the Little Rock crisis, addressing the importance of grassroots activism,

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