Advances and New Directions

By Silvano Arieti; H. Keith H. Brodie | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 1

THE ENDORPHINS
AND PSYCHOSIS *

Stanley J. Watson

Huda Akil

Philip A. Berger

Jack D. Barchas


¶ Introduction

THE LIST of neurotransmitters or neuromodulators has grown enormously in the last few years. Yet, few of these newly discovered brain messengers have so rapidly affected behavioral sciences and biological psychiatry as have the endorphins. Clearly, the thought of having our "own natural opiates" is fascinating and carries more obvious connotations to the psychiatrist than the discovery of other substances with fewer pharmacological ramifications. After all, opiates clearly alter mood and affect, and some of them produce hallucinations and bizarre thought content. 49,74 They have been occasionally used as therapeutic tools in the past, with varying success. Furthermore, addiction to morphine or heroin is a psychiatric and social problem which pre-

sents multiple questions as to its psychological versus its physiological roots and manifestations. Finally, morphine, codeine, and other analgesics on the one hand, and heroin and other "street" opiates on the other, are closely associated in many minds with notions of pleasure and pain—notions that lie at the core of many psychological theories of normal and abnormal behavior.

It is fortunate that the endorphins are so intrinsically appealing, because they are also complex, numerous, and sometimes frustrating. In the last few years we have learned a great deal about them and from them. While they have yet to provide a key to understanding psychosis, they have taught us a great deal about brain-pituitary relationships, about the nature of neurotransmission, and peptide biosynthesis. They hold some hope for a better understanding of psychosis, an understanding which should be based on sound knowledge of the underlying physiology.

This chapter begins with a presentation of

____________________
*
Supported by Scottish Rite Schizophrenia Research Foundation; NIMH Grant No. MH30854; and NIMH Program Project Grant No. MH23861.

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Advances and New Directions
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 856

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.