absolutely nothing. 38. For we should not be like those who do not believe that Almighty God could have made something from nothing, when they observe that carpenters or any workmen cannot produce anything unless they have something out of which to make it. For wood helps the carpenter, and silver helps the silversmith, and gold the goldsmith, and clay helps the potter so that they are able to accomplish their works. For if they are not helped by that matter out of which they make something, they cannot make anything since they do not themselves make the matter. A carpenter does not make wood, but makes something out of wood, and the case is the same with all the rest of these workmen as well. But Almighty God did not have to be helped by anything that he had not made so that he could make what he wanted. For if something that he had not made helped him to make those things he wanted to make, he was not almighty, and that is sacrilegious to believe. 39.
Unformed Matter Is Called by Various Names
11. Hence, that unformed matter which God made from nothing was first called heaven and earth, and Scripture said, "In the beginning God made heaven and earth," not because____________________