it is said also of the earth, "The Lord's is the earth and its fullness," 33. and it says with an all-inclusive sweep, "For all things are yours, O Lord, who love souls." 34. We can understand here this spirit, if we take the words, "In the beginning God made heaven and earth," 35. as referring only to the visible creation. Thus there was borne over the matter of visible things at the start of their production an invisible spirit, which is nonetheless a creature, that is, not God, but a nature made and established by God. But if we think that the matter of all things, that is, of the intellectual and animal and corporeal creation, was referred to by the term "water," the spirit of God in this passage can only be understood as that immutable and holy Spirit of God which was borne over the matter of all the things which God made and created.
18. A third opinion can arise concerning this spirit. One might think that the mention of this spirit refers to the element of air. Thus the four elements are indicated from which this visible world arises, namely, heaven, earth, water, and air—not that they were distinguished and ordered, but because in the confusion of that matter, formless as it was, there was marked out what would arise. This formless confusion is conveyed by the mention of darkness and the abyss. But whichever of these opinions is true, we must believe that God is the Maker and Creator of all things which have arisen, whether they are seen or not seen, not as regards the defects which are against nature, but as regards the natures themselves. We must also believe that there is no creature at all which does not have from him the beginning and the perfection of its kind and substance.
19. "And God said, 'Let there be light,' and the light was made." 36. We ought to understand that God did not say, "Let there be light," by a sound brought forth from the lungs, or____________________