Notes

1
Authoritarianism came in the Eastern European states as early as 1919 in Hungary and 1920 in Romania. It developed from 1926 in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland and from 1928 in Yugoslavia; it arrived in 1934 in Estonia and Bulgaria. See S. Berglund, T. Hellén and F. H. Aarebrot, Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1998) pp. 14–16, 25–6.
2
According to the 1997 freedom ratings quoted in S. Berglund et al. (note 1) p. 3, the following nine countries were regarded as being ‘free’: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Romania, Bulgaria; a further six countries were regarded as being ‘partly free’: Slovakia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Macedonia, Albania and Moldova, while (the new) Yugoslavia was held to be ‘not free’. By 2001, it would seem that at least Slovakia, Croatia and Macedonia and even Serbia had moved into the category of ‘free’ countries.
3
One exception is A. Agh, Emerging Democracies in East Central Europe and the Balkans (Northampton, MA: Elgar, 1998), in which there is a chapter on executives, but the developments do not examine specifically the characteristics of cabinets. The study of Hungary by A. Korosenyi, Government and Parliament in Hungary (Central European University Press, 1998) does examine in detail the ‘cabinet system’ of that country.
4
J. Blondel and F. Müller-Rommel (eds) Cabinets in Western Europe (2nd edn, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997) pp. 1–2.
5
Ibid., p. 2.
6
The Swiss system is based on the idea of a ‘council’ whose members are appointed by parliament, formally at least on an individual basis, for a fixed period. The characteristics of the appointment and composition of the European Commission of the European Union are similar in many ways to this model.
7
Sigma, an organisation financed by the European Union but closely associated with the OECD, has analysed in considerable detail the administrative characteristics of most of the countries of East-Central Europe and of some of the Balkan countries. Much of the description of these characteristics in this volume are based on the information provided by Sigma.
8
J. Blondel and F. Müller-Rommel (note 4) p. 5.
9
Ibid., p. 6.
10
Ibid., pp. 14–15.
11
The expressions are from B. Farrell, Chairman or Chief, The Role of Taoiseach in Irish Government (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1971).

-14-

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Cabinets in Eastern Europe
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Tables viii
  • Notes on Contributors ix
  • Preface x
  • Cabinets in Post-Communist East-Central Europe and in the Balkans: Introduction 1
  • Notes 14
  • Part 1 - East-Central Europe 15
  • 1 - Estonia 17
  • 2 - Latvia 29
  • 3 - Lithuania 40
  • 4 - Poland 50
  • 5 - Czech Republic 62
  • 6 - Slovakia 73
  • 7 - Hungary 84
  • 8 - Slovenia 95
  • Part 2 - The Balkans 107
  • 9 - Romania 109
  • 10 - Moldova 120
  • 11 - Bulgaria 131
  • 12 - Albania 142
  • 13 - Macedonia 152
  • 14 - Croatia 162
  • 15 - Bosnia-Hercegovina 173
  • 16 - Serbia and the New Yugoslavia 184
  • 17 - Cabinets in Post-Communist East-Central Europe and the Balkans: Empirical Findings and Research Agenda 193
  • Appendices 202
  • Bibliography 226
  • Index 241
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