Whitelaw Ainslie (1768–1837) entered the Madras Medical Service as assistant surgeon in 1798, was promoted to surgeon in 1794 and superintending surgeon in 1823, retiring in 1828. He was well regarded for his many writings on medical subjects, particularly the MateriaIndica, and was knighted for professional eminence in June 1835. Ainslie was author of The Use of Balsam of Peru, 1811; Edible Vegetables, 1811; MateriaMedica of Hindustan, 1813, which was enlarged and republished as MateriaIndica in 1826; Observations on Cholera, 1825 and Medical Observations (in Murray's British India), 1832. In addition, Ainslie published two non-medical works, a drama entitled Clemanza, or the Tuscan Orphan, in 1822 and Historical Sketch of Introduction of Christianity into India, 1835.
Claude Bernard (1813–78) was renowned for his skill in dissection, demonstration, experimentation and, more controversially, vivisection of animals. He was a founder of the Société de Biologie in 1848 and was elected perpetual president in 1867. Bernard received the title Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1849, and in 1855 a chair of general philosophy was created for him at the Sorbonne. In 1864 he established a laboratory in which to pursue his researches in physiology. Bernard made considerable advances in physiological understanding of the functions of the pancreas and liver and of the sensory and motor properties of nerves.
Henry Vandyke Carter (1831–97) became a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons and received his Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries in 1852. In 1856 he obtained his MD from London University. He joined the Bombay Medical Service as assistant surgeon in 1858 and was promoted to surgeon in 1870. He advanced to the post of surgeon-major in 1873 and brigade surgeon in 1882 before retiring in 1888. He was appointed honorary deputy surgeon-general and the Queen's honorary surgeon on 8 November 1890.
William Robert Cornish (1828–97) became a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1852 and joined the Madras Medical Service in 1854. He was promoted to surgeon in 1866 and became a Fellow of the Royal College