Literally meaning ‘return to home village’, a cultural practice of returning to the home village or town during cultural festivals, and other occasions to visit parents and relatives
Literally meaning ‘sons of the soil’, referring to Malays and other indigenous groups in Malaysia
Muslim missionary activity to spread the message of Islam.
Modern urban-dwellers whose lifestyles are relatively modest, with a strong family and community orientation, rather than being cosmopolitan, individualistic and isolated from kin and community. Culturally, ‘folk urbanites’ – though living in modern urban settings – tend to operate within the domain of their cultural values and religious practices.
Mutual help, a traditional form of cooperation among Malay villagers, especially when performing tasks involving a lot of physical labour.
Pilgrimage to Mecca to fulfill Islam's fifth pillar performed in Zulhijjah, the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar.
Hari Raya (Haji)
Also known as Hari Raya Idiladha, a Muslim celebration held on the 10th of Zulhijjah, the month Muslims perform their pilgrimage to Mecca.
Hari Raya (Puasa)
Also known as Hari Raya Idilfitri, a Muslim celebration held after the end of the fasting month of Ramadan.
Marriage within the same social group; for example, members of the new middle class marrying other members of the same class.