Developing Countries in the WTO

By Constantine Michalopoulos | Go to book overview

Notes

1
As noted in Chapter 3, there is no formal developing-country definition and countries follow the principle of self-selection. The definition of countries as ‘developed’ or ‘transition’ is provided in Appendix 1 and is used throughout the volume. In this chapter, of course, only the Members of GATT/WTO are included in the various groups.
2
These rules are listed in GATT (1994).
3
Since 1998, LDCs in arrears have not been barred from receiving technical assistance from the WTO.
4
An earlier version of this analysis, using data up to 1997, is presented in Michalopoulos (1999a). The basic information on representation and leadership positions comes from the GATT/WTO directories issued in 1982, 1987, 1997 and 2000. A detailed discussion of the limitations of these can be found Michalopoulos (1998). The annex to that study contains a detailed list of the location and size of each WTO Mission as of mid 1997.
5
See Chaytor and Hindley (1997).
6
This was much larger than the expansion of WTO secretariat staff over the same period, which rose from 340 in 1982, to 383 in 1987, 515 in 1997 and about 540 in 2000. The two lists are not comparable, however, as the secretariat's list includes support staff. As the professional staff in the secretariat – excluding interpreters and translators – numbered less than 200, both the absolute and the relative increase of WTO professional secretariat staff over the period was much smaller than the expansion of Mission staff.
7
Only four countries (Burundi, Gabon, Malaysia and the Democratic Republic of Congo) had fewer Mission staff working on WTO/GATT issues in 2000 than in 1982.
8
The average size of Missions in the ‘other’ category, mostly transition economies, did not change.
9
Recall that ‘mission’ includes representatives to the WTO/GATT as listed in the directories, irrespective of whether they are located in Geneva or elsewhere. The differences are actually somewhat smaller if one compares only the countries with missions in Geneva.
10
This is consistent with the minimum-size Mission estimated by Blackhurst (1997).
11
The chairmanship and vice-chairmanship of the GATT Contracting Parties are included in the list of ‘important’ chairmanships, although their functions were mostly ceremonial. According to GATT practice these positions were held by representatives of countries that had held the same positions in the GATT General Council the previous year.
12
Interestingly enough, very few of these top leadership positions have been held by representatives of the EU, the US or Japan. At the same time the chairmanship of the Committee on Trade and Development, which deals exclusively with developing-country issues, has traditionally been held by somebody from a developing country.
13
One such group active in the late 1990s was called the ‘Beau-Rivage group’, which included the Geneva-based representatives of a number of smaller

-174-

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Developing Countries in the WTO
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Tables viii
  • Preface x
  • List of Abbreviations xii
  • 1 - Introduction: Developing Countries in World Trade 1
  • 2 - Trends in Developing-Country Trade, 1980–99 7
  • 3 - Trade and Development in Gatt and the WTO 22
  • 4 - Developing-Country Policies 45
  • 5 - Developing-Country Trade-Related Institutions 89
  • 6 - Developed-Country Policies 104
  • 7 - The Trips Agreement and Developing Countries 129
  • 8 - Developing-Country Participation in the WTO 152
  • Notes 174
  • 9 - WTO Accession Issues 176
  • 10 - Towards a Development Round 196
  • 11 - Policy Coherence 228
  • 12 - Conclusions and Recommendations 244
  • Appendix 1: Country Groupings 255
  • Appendix 2 - Method of Estimating Frequency Ratios 258
  • References 261
  • Index 269
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