ANCIENT ROME AS SEEN BY MODERNS.
IN our rapid summary connecting some of the surviving Roman monuments of various localities with the essential facts regarding the types of Roman buildings and their system of construction and decoration, we have done scant justice to the importance and local interest of many ruins in the city of Rome. The aim of the present chapter will be to enumerate such important remains as have been omitted from previous mention, or to give a more adequate notice of others which have been too hastily passed over.
We shall begin this account with an illustration of the Appian Way (Fig. 68). This was the earliest of the famous military roads of Rome. It was first constructed as far as Capua by the censor Appius Claudius Cæcus in 312 B. C., and was subsequently extended to Beneventum and Brundusium. The ancient construction of the road and its original massive paving-blocks of lava have been laid bare by modern excavations in the neighborhood of Rome for several miles. Remains of similar roads have been found in many territories of the empire, but they appear most wonderful, or most suggestive of the wonderful services of Rome to the cause of civilization, in those countries which are now destitute of similar facilities for traffic; for instance, in Asia Minor, Syria, and many parts of North Africa. There are at present only two short carriage roads in Syria: one running from Beyrout to Damascus, the other running from Jaffa to Jerusalem,