THE BYZANTINE ART.
IT is not till the eleventh century that we see spontaneous efforts at improved design in Western Europe, and for that date the existing monuments of such spontaneous efforts are quite rare--for instance, the bronze cathedral doors made under direction of Bishop Bernward of Hildesheim. Meantime we see either survivals of the old classic decadence, as represented by some of the sarcophagi of Ravenna (Figs. 89, 90); or efforts of more or less untrained barbarism or ignorance (Figs. 92, 93); or what is known as the "Byzantine" style. This last was native to Eastern Europe and the Roman territories of the eastern Mediterranean, but is found in widespread examples also in all parts of Western Europe.
It should be explained that these three classes of art works are not to be conceived as existing at one time in one territory. The coexistence of the Byzantine style with semi- barbaric art is to be expected. The coexistence of the survival of the older classic decadence (Fig. 90) with the Byzantine style is also to be expected. But the classic decadence survival will, generally speaking, exclude the barbaric art and for obvious reasons. Being a survival it is confined to certain localities which for one reason or another had escaped the more overwhelming devastations of the invasions. Arles (in Southern France), Rome, and Ravenna, are the places where this style is best represented and it scarcely survived the sixth century. Otherwise we find its