THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD.
THE main periods of the art of the Middle Ages are three in number and these periods are especially apparent in architecture. They are consequently named in general according to the architectural divisions. The art of architecture will be always found to be the dominant one in history and as far as classifications and systematic conceptions are concerned it is always necessary to move from it. According to this system the Gothic period is the latest of the Middle Ages and its centuries are in round numbers those between 1200 and 1500 A.D. The period intervening between the Byzantine or early Christian and the Gothic will therefore be the two centuries from 1000 to 1200 A. D.
As regards the designation of the first period it will be understood that Byzantine style long outlasted the eleventh century in Eastern Europe. It was in the first place coexistent with the empire from which it derives its name, which lasted till 1453. It was subsequently practiced by the Christians of the East under Turkish rule, and in Russian art it was the main factor until the nineteenth century. Byzantine art was not universal in Western Europe during the early Middle Age, although it was universally influential before the eleventh century, and no high technical perfection was reached without it. The matter of fact of history on this point has been stated on page 149. There were, aside from Byzantine influences, those which moved directly from the old western Roman