STUART K. WITT
Though New York has always had a strong governor, the powers of the state legislature in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were greater, relative to those of the executive branch, than in the twentieth century. The legislature selected United States senators, appointed many executive officers, controlled expenditure and revenue policies, chartered individual corporations, and involved itself deeply in the affairs of local government. Those powers have been displaced or diluted by direct election, gubernatorial appointment, the executive budget, general incorporation laws, and home rule. In addition, the legislature has delegated extensive law-making authority to the state bureaucracy and has had its remaining authority limited by an increasingly detailed state constitution, by the expansion of the powers of the national government, and by the policies of the federal courts.
Thus the evolution of the legislature has involved a diminution of its external social significance. It has also involved a process of insti‐ tutionalization that has reflected the bureaucratization of the society around it. The legislature's annual operating expenditures have nearly tripled in the last decade and are currently over $27 million, an amount greater than the entire state budget at the turn of the century. Legislators and leaders stay in office much longer than they did a century ago, giving the legislature greater institutional continuity. Other marks of change include an increase of specialized staffs, a tightening of physical security, a new legislative office building, higher legislative salaries and expense allowances, and a modern image-oriented public re