the Goths, when the nations of the Alani, Suevi, Vandals, and many others with them, having defeated the Franks and passed the Rhine, ravaged all Gaul, Gratian, born in a Roman colony, was set up as tyrant and killed. In his place, Constantine, one of the meanest soldiers, only for his name's sake, and without any worth to recommend him, was chosen emperor. As soon as he had taken upon him the command, he passed over into France, where being often imposed upon by the barbarians with faithless treaties, he caused much injury to the Commonwealth. Whereupon Count Constantius, by the command of Honorius, marching into Gaul with an army, besieged him in the city of Arles, and put him to death. His son Constans, whom of a monk he had created, Cæsar at Vienne, was also put to death by his own Count Gerontius. Rome was taken by the Goths, in the year from its foundation, 1164. Then the Romans ceased to rule in Britain, almost 470 years after that Caius Julius Cæsar entered that island. They resided within the rampart, which we have mentioned Severus made across the island, on the south side of it, as the cities, temples, bridges, and paved roads there made, testify to this day; but they had a right of dominion over the farther parts of Britain, as also over the islands that are beyond Britain.
THE BRITONS BEING RAVAGED BY THE SCOTS AND PICTS, SOUGHT
SUCCOUR FROM THE ROMANS, WHO, COMING A SECOND TIME,
BUILT A WALL ACROSS THE ISLAND; BUT THE BRITONS BEING
AGAIN INVADED BY THE AFORESAID ENEMIES, WERE REDUCED
TO GREATER DISTRESS THAN BEFORE.
From that time, the south part of Britain, destitute of armed soldiers, of martial stores, and of all its active youth,