Korean War Order of Battle: United States, United Nations, and Communist Ground, Naval, and Air Forces, 1950-1953

By Gordon L. Rottman | Go to book overview

Chapter 4

Republic of Korea

REPUBLIC OF KOREA ARMY

The Republic of Korea (R.O.K.—pronounced “rock”) (Taehan Min’guk, or Hanguk, for short) was proclaimed on 15 August 1948 after U.N.-supervised elections, and the U.N. recognized the country on 15 December. Interestingly, South Korea was not admitted to the U.N. until 1991, the same year North Korea was accepted.

In 1945 the U.S. Military Government allowed the Office of the Director of National Defense to be established with authority over the Korean National Police and the new Bureau of the Armed Forces comprised of the Departments of the Army and Navy. The Office of the Director of National Defense was renamed the Department of Internal Security, and the Bureau of the Armed Forces became the Bureau of the Constabulary in June 1946. The Korean National Defense Constabulary (Choson Kyongbi-dae) began forming light infantry companies in the nation’s eight provinces, and these were gradually expanded to provincial regiments in 1947. The regiments were soon redesignated the 1st–8th Constabulary Brigades. A 9th Brigade was later organized with the Constabulary growing to 50,000 men. Most of the Constabulary’s weapons were turned over from the U.S. Army occupation forces in June 1949. It had previously been armed with Japanese weapons. The R.O.K. Army (Tae-Hanna Min’guk Yuk-Kun) was formed on 15 August 1948 from the Korean Constabulary. Many of these troops had served in the Imperial Japanese Army, Chinese Nationalist-supported Korean Restoration Army (Kwangbok Kun), and the Chinese Liberation Army (communist) during World War II.

Between June 1948 and May 1949, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th, and 7th Infantry Divisions of the ROKA were organized from the 1st, 2nd, 9th, 5th, 4th, and 7th Constabulary Brigades, respectively. The 8th R.O.K. and Capital Divisions were organized in 1949. The Capital Division was actually an infantry division and later deployed as a frontline formation. Had it been assigned a number it would have been the 10th Division. The Capital Security Command, responsible for the defense of Seoul, was assigned the unnumbered Cavalry Regiment, a partly motorized unit with two dozen M8 and M20 armored cars and

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Korean War Order of Battle: United States, United Nations, and Communist Ground, Naval, and Air Forces, 1950-1953
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • A Brief Overview of the Korean War xv
  • Chronology of the Korean War xix
  • Chapter 1 - United States of America 1
  • Chapter 2 - United Nations Contingents 117
  • Chapter 3 - British Commonwealth 125
  • Chapter 4 - Republic of Korea 149
  • Chapter 5 - Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 161
  • Chapter 6 - People’s Republic of China 173
  • Chapter 7 - Other Nations’ Participation 185
  • Selected Bibliography 221
  • Index 225
  • About the Author 231
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