Soldiers, Statecraft, and History: Coercive Diplomacy and International Order

By James A. Nathan | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
By the early seventeenth century, there was a widespread sense that Spain was in a state of precipitous decline. “Never,” in nearly 800 years of continuous war, “has Spain been as poor as it is now.” Louis Valle de la Cerda, cited by J. H. Elliot, “ ‘Self Perception and Decline’ ” in Spain,” Past and Present (74): 53.
2.
Charles Howard Carter, The Secret Diplomacy of the Hapsburgs: 1598–1625 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964), p. 31.
3.
John Lynch, Spain under the Hapsburgs, Vol. 2, 1598–1700, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1981), p. 65; and Carter, The Secret Diplomacy of the Hapsburgs: 1598–1625, p. 30ff.
4.
In a letter written in 1629, cited by John Elliot, The Count Duke Olivares, the Statesman of an Age of Decline (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986), p. 66 n.57. See also Peter Brightwell, various articles: “The Spanish Origins of the Thirty Years War,” European Studies Review 9 (1979); and “Spain and Bohemia, 1619–1621,” European Studies Review 12 (1982); “The Spanish System and the Twelve Years Truce,” English Historical Review 12 (1982): 270–292.
5.
Hugh-Trevor Roper, “The Outbreak of the Thirty Years War,” in Hugh Trevor-Roper (ed.), Renaissance Essays (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), p. 293; Peter Brightwell, “The Spanish Origins of the Thirty Years War,” European Studies Review 9(4) (October 1979): 409–431; and H. R. Trevor-Roper, “Spain and Europe: 1598–1621,” in J. P. Cooper (ed.), The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 4: The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War: 1609–48/59 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), p. 281.
6.
Cited by Lt. Col. J. Mitchell, The Life of Wallenstein: Duke of Friedland (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1968), p. 21. The defenestration of 1618 was, in fact, a well-planned imitation of a famous defenestration 200 years earlier that had started the Hussite revolution.
7.
David Maland, Europe at War: 1600–1650 (Totowa, N.J.: Rowan and Littlefield, 1980), p. 64ff.
8.
Geoffrey Parker and Simon Adams, “The Indecisive War, 1618–1629,” in Geoffrey Parker (ed.), The Thirty Years’ War, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 1997).
9.
Elmer A. Beller, “The Thirty Years War,” in Cooper (ed.), The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 4, p. 311.
10.
C. V. Wedgwood, The Thirty Years War (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1939), p. 100; also Mary Anne Everett Green, Elizabeth: Electress of Palatine and Queen of Bohemia, rev. ed. (London: Methuen & Co., 1909), pp. 129–130, for Frederick’s hesitations.
11.
Wedgwood, The Thirty Years War, p. 85ff.
12.
Elmer Beller, Propaganda in Germany during the Thirty Years War (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1940), p. 24.
13.
Traveling south to the Rhine, disguised as a merchant, Frederick caught up with his commander, General Mansfield who, at the moment of his encounter with Frederick, was actually engaged in talks about switching sides with a Spanish diplomat. Frederick would have been advised to release his mercenary to Spain; for

-19-

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