SELF and SOCIETY
Having examined Shaftesbury's general views on the nature of man, and having surveyed the social affections which he regards as the essence of man, it remains to treat the selfdirected and the unnatural affections, as well as the relevant problem of the relation of self-interest and public interest.
Despite his vigorous attack on psychological egoism, Shaftesbury was fully aware of the fact that the self-directed impulses or drives are necessary aspects of human nature, since every organism naturally strives to act for its own survival and welfare. He defines these "self-affections" as those that "relate to the private interest or separate economy of the creature . . . and constitute whatever we call interestedness or self-love." (I, 317) The basic list includes (1) "love of life," (2) "resentment of injury," (3) "pleasure" (or "luxury"), (4) desire for wealth and material conveniences ("interest"), (5) love of praise ("emulation"), and (6) "love of ease and rest" ("indolence"). (I, 317)