Eisenstein, Sergei Mikhaelovich (1898–1948)
Russian filmmaker, theorist, and teacher. Exponent of montage.
See underFilm and Modernism.
Ekelöf, Gunnar (1907–1968)
Swedish poet, critic and prose-writer.
His first collection of verse, sent på jorden (1932, Late Arrival on Earth), represents, with its new and daring imagery, a radical break with literary tradition, finding its affinities in movements within international modernism, such as surrealism and dada.Dedikation (1934) is headed by a motto from Rimbaud, indicating Ekelöf’s relationship with the symbolist and surrealist tradition. In the following collections Sorgen och stjärnan (1936, The Sorrow and the Star) and Köp den blindes sång (1938, Buy the Blind Man’s Song) the language is logically clearer and more direct. Here the poet adopts a romantic role but can also engage in social themes. Färjesång (1941, Ferry Song), characterized by the poet himself as his personal breakthrough, represents another renewal of style and content; a mystical view of life is expressed in an analytical and intellectual language, a mysticism which is continued in Non serviam (1945), a title furthermore indicating Ekelöf’s role as a modernist outsider, declining fixed ideologies and clear-cut standpoints. Om hösten (1951, In the Autumn) is a varied and retrospective collection containing poems from a period of twenty-two years.
The next phase consists of the three collections Strountes (1955, Nonsense), Opus incertum (1959) and En natt i Otoĉac (1961, A Night in Otoĉac), described by Ekelöf as anti-aesthetic and anti-poetic, making use of the nonsensical, the absurd, the grotesque. En Mölna-Elegi (1960, A Mölna Elegy) is a poem dealing with the experience of time, using a highly allusive technique and reaching back all the way to ancient Latin graffiti. Ekelöf’s last project was the trilogy Diwan över fursten av Emgión (1965, Diwan About the Prince of Emgión), Sagan om Fatumeh (1966, The Tale of Fatumeh) and Vägvisare till underjorden (1967, Eng. tr. Guide to the Underworld, 1980) where the Virgin becomes a central symbol for Ekelöf’s universal mysticism.
Ekelöf’s prose is comprised of the essay collections Promenader (1941, Promenades), Utflykter (1947, Excursions), Blandade kort (1957, Shuffled Cards) and, posthumously edited, Lägga patience (1969, Playing Solitaire). A critical edition of Ekelöf’s complete works, Skrifter (1991–93), is edited in eight volumes by Reidar Ekner. A selection of Ekelöf’s poetry has been translated by Robert Bly and Christina Paulston under the title Late Arrival on Earth (1967). Muriel Rukseyer