LEE BEIER is Professor of History and Chair of the History Department at Southern Illinois University, Normal. He has written widely on the history of the poor, vagrancy, and the poor laws in early modern England, and has contributed books, articles, and chapters on this topic. His most well-known work is Masterless Men: The Vagrancy Problem in England, 1560–1640 (1985). He is currently engaged in a study of the poor and the problem of criminality.
TREVOR DEAN is Professor of Medieval History in the History Department at the University of Surrey, Roehampton. Recent publications include Crime, Society and the Law in Renaissance Italy (1994), edited with Kate Lowe, and a study of Crime in Medieval Europe (2000). His interests focus on vendetta and disputes arising from marriage in late medieval/Renaissance Italy, and he is currently researching a range of further crimes in late medieval Bologna including insult and theft.
CLIVE EMSLEY is Professor of History and co-director of the European Centre for the Study of Policing at The Open University. He has published second, revised editions of the popular The English Police: A Political and Social History (1996), and Crime and Society in England 1750–1900 (1996), a major study of Gendarmes and the State in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1999), and has co-edited with Richard Bessel, Patterns of Provocation: Police and Public Disorder (2000). He is currently working on several aspects of policing the state in modern Europe.
DAVID ENGLANDER was Senior Lecturer in European Humanities Study, and Co-Director of the Charles Booth Centre at The Open University. His recent books include Mr. Charles Booth’s Inquiry: Life and La-