Georges Clemenceau: A Political Biography

By David Robin Watson | Go to book overview

Appendix III
Electoral Systems
Dates of Elections
Type of Constituency
Number of Ballots
(I) 1871 Multi-Member
Single
(2) 1876, 1877, 1881, I889, 1893, 1898, I902, 1906, 1910, I9I4, 1928, 1932, I936 Single-Member
Double
(3) 1885 Multi-Member
Double
(4) 1919, 1924 Multi-Member
Single *

System 2 was the normal electoral system under the Third Republic and has been restored since 1958. If no candidate won an absolute majority of votes cast at the first ballot, a second ballot was held at which a relative majority sufficed. In practice the first ballot acted as a primary election in the American style, and usually only two serious candidates stood at the second ballot.

Under the multi-member systems the department usually formed the constituency, although in 1919 and 1924 some departments were divided. The number of deputies varied according to population, and each elector could cast as many votes as there were deputies to be elected. 1871 offers the only example of a simple majority system; combined with multi-member constituencies, and the unusual political circumstances, it produced an anomalous result.

____________________
*
In practice; there was provision for a second ballot but this was necessary in only one constituency in 1919; this system was a modified form of proportional representation, which worked in a complicated and arbitrary fashion.

-416-

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Georges Clemenceau: A Political Biography
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Georges Clemenceau - A Political Biography *
  • Contents 5
  • Illustrations *
  • Acknowledgements 11
  • Part One - Childhood, Youth and the Commune I84i-1871 *
  • 1 - Childhood and Youth 15
  • 2 - The Commune 34
  • Part Two - The Radical Attack I87i-1889 *
  • 3 - Challenger from the Left 59
  • 4 - Clemenceau versus Ferry 81
  • 5 - Boulangism 101
  • Part Three - Defeat and Resurgence I889-1906 *
  • 6 - Panama 117
  • 7 - The Dreyfus Affair 138
  • Part Four - The First Ministry I906-1909 *
  • 8 - Minister of the Interior 167
  • 9 - Clemenceau as Premier 183
  • 10 - Clemenceau as Strike-Breaker 200
  • 11 - Foreign Policy 215
  • Part Five - Opposition I909-1917 *
  • 12 - In Opposition before the War 237
  • 13 - Opposition in Wartime 249
  • Part Six - Pere-La-Victoire I9i7-1918 *
  • 14 - Second Ministry: Domestic Politics 275
  • 15 - Military Strategy 293
  • 16 - Russian Intervention and Victory 315
  • Part Seven - The Peace Settlement and after I9i8-1929 *
  • 17 - The Versailles Treaty 331
  • 18 - The Middle East and Russia 366
  • 19 - Domestic Politics and Last Years 380
  • Part Eight - Conclusion *
  • 20 - Conclusion 397
  • Appendices Sources and Bibliography Index *
  • Appendix I 411
  • Appendix II 414
  • Appendix III 416
  • Appendix IV 417
  • Appendix V 424
  • Appendix VI 428
  • Appendix VII 434
  • Sources and Bibliography 438
  • Index 455
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