BERTIE, Francis Leveson, first Viscount Bertie of Thame (1844-1919): a pro- fessional diplomat, British ambassador in Paris 1905-18. 'M. Clemenceau, who placed implicit trust in him, gave him on his retirement such proofs of esteem on behalf of France as a British ambassador can rarely have received' (Dictionary of National Biography).
BLANQUI, Louis Auguste (1805-81): a lifelong revolutionary, frequently imprisoned: he began as a member of the Carbonari, and continued their policy of secret, tightly disciplined revolutionary organizations. In 1870 he edited a newspaper, La Patrie en Danger, advocating social revolution and prosecution of the war to the utmost: he was arrested on 17 March 1871, and thus missed the Commune, where his followers were prominent. Blanquists remained a distinctive sect among French Socialists for twenty years after his death.
BOULANGER, Georges Ernest Jean Marie, general (1837-91): a professional soldier, promoted to general in 1880: minister of war from 7 June 1886 to 30 May 1887: became a popular hero, and on being placed on the retired list as a result of his political intrigues, led a movement aiming at constitutional revision. After spectacular electoral victories in 1888, the Boulangist movement petered out when Boulanger was frightened into exile, and his followers were left leader- less, in spite of a certain success in the 1889 elections.
BRIAND, Aristide (1862-1932): lawyer and journalist. Regarded as an extreme left-wing Socialist at the beginning of his political career, he rapidly moderated his position; he was a deputy in 1902, a minister in 1906, prime minister in 1909, and thereafter scarcely ever out of office for long periods, except from 1917-20. Regarded as a renegade by the Socialists of the S.F.1.0., he occupied a position in the Centre of the political spectrum, and was perhaps the most typical pro- fessional politician of the period. Clemenceau disliked him intensely, although Briand was a minister in his first cabinet.
CAILLAUX, Joseph (1863-1944): he began as a high civil servant, an Inspecteur des Finances, becoming a deputy in 1898. Originally a moderate republican, he moved leftwards, becoming the leader of the Radical party in 1913. He was minister of finance in the Waldeck-Rousseau cabinet, 1899-1902, and again in the first Clemenceau cabinet. As prime minister in 1911 he negotiated the Agadir settlement with Germany. Accused of treason because of his advocacy of a compromise peace, he was tried by the Senate, sitting as a High Court, in