Strategies for Natural Language Processing

By Wendy G. Lehnert; Martin H. Ringle | Go to book overview

generation. It shows what can be done in a fairly complete system that understands natural language (typed or spoken), answers questions and performs various actions, and responds in natural language (typed and spoken).

Problems that arose in the design of HWIM were precursors of those that are central issues in AI research today. For example, the speech-act issues for HWIM are similar to those studied by Cohen ( 1978), Cohen and Perrault ( 1979), and Allen ( 1979). Questions of knowledge representation closely related to those faced in HWIM have been pursued by Bobrow and Winograd ( 1977), Brachman ( 1979), and Fahlman ( 1979). (Also see Brachman & Smith, 1980). Language generation in a discourse context similar to HWIM's has been studied by McDonald ( 1980) and others. Finally, the issue of interactions among syntax, semantics, and pragmatics is crucial in the work of Schank and Abelson ( 1977), Bobrow ( 1978), Woods ( 1980), and others.

The characteristics of HWIM reflect the goal of natural communication between a person and a computer assistant. Even in its limited domain, it illustrates the extent to which natural communication depends on diverse kinds of knowledge in both communicants. The structure of HWIM can provide a useful framework for obtaining a better understanding of natural communication.


HWIM was developed over a 5-year period as the BBN speech -understanding system. This chapter, which draws from Volume 5 of the final report on HWIM ( Woods et al., 1976), focuses on the component of the system embodying semantic and pragmatic knowledge. Many people worked on the system; those specifically involved with the parts of the system discussed here included Bonnie Webber, Bill Woods, Laura Gould, Greg Harris, Craig Cook, Lyn Bates, Geff Brown, and David Grabel. For discussions of other speech understanding systems, see Erman et al. ( 1980), Lea ( 1980), and Walker ( 1978).

Bill Woods, Bonnie Webber, Scott Fertig, Andee Rubin, Ron Brachman, Marilyn Adams, Phil Cohen, Allan Collins, and Marty Ringle contributed useful suggestions and criticisms to this chapter. Cindy Hunt helped in the preparation. The system development and much of the writing was supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense and was monitored by ONR under Contract No. N00014-75-C 0533. Additional work on the chapter itself was supported by the National Institute of Education under Contract No. US-NIE-C-400-76-0116. Views and conclusions contained here are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official opinion or policy of DARPA, NIE, the U.S. Government, or any other person or agency connected with them.


Allen J. A plan-based approach to speech act recognition (Tech. Rep. No. 131/79). Toronto: Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, 1979.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Strategies for Natural Language Processing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Abstracts xvii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - The State of the Art In Natural-Language Understanding 3
  • Acknowledgments 30
  • References 30
  • II - Implementation Issues 33
  • 2 - Realistic Language Comprehension 37
  • References 53
  • 3 - Natural Communication Between Person and Computer 55
  • Acknowledgments 86
  • References 86
  • 4 - Parsing and Comprehending With Word Experts (a Theory And Its Realization) 89
  • Acknowledgments 147
  • References 147
  • 5 - An Overview of the Frump System 149
  • Acknowledgments 175
  • References 175
  • 6 - A Framework for Conceptual Analyzers 177
  • References 196
  • III - Conversation And Discourse 199
  • 7 - Conversation Failure 203
  • References 220
  • 8 - Towards an Understanding Of Coherence in Discourse 223
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 242
  • 9 - Beyond Question Answering 245
  • Acknowledgments 271
  • References 271
  • 10 - Adversary Arguments and The Logic of Personal Attacks 275
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 294
  • IV - Knowledge Representation 295
  • 11 - Inference and Learning In Computer Model of The Development of Language Comprehension in a Young Child 299
  • Acknowledgments 325
  • References 325
  • 12 - Inferring Building Blocks For Knowledge Representation 327
  • Acknowledgments 343
  • References 343
  • 13 - Points: A Theory of the Structure Of Stories in Memory 345
  • References 373
  • 14 - Plot Units: a Narrative Summarization Strategy 375
  • Acknowledgments 411
  • References 411
  • V - Theoretical Issues 413
  • 15 - Metaphor: an Inescapable Phenomenon In Natural-Language Comprehension 415
  • Acknowledgments 432
  • References 433
  • 16 - Context Recognition In Language Cornprehension 435
  • Acknowledgments 453
  • References 453
  • 17 - Reminding and Memory Organization: an Introduction To Mops 455
  • Acknowledgments 493
  • References 493
  • 18 - Some Thoughts on Procedural Semantics 495
  • Acknowledgments 515
  • Notes on Contributors 517
  • Subject Index 523
  • Index 529


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 533

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.