Strategies for Natural Language Processing

By Wendy G. Lehnert; Martin H. Ringle | Go to book overview

ond, the system is robust; redundant encoding of linguistic knowledge is encouraged by the very nature of distributed experts. Also, the notion of timeouts guarantees that comprehension will never be totally blocked by an inadequate or incorrectly designed expert. Third, the model encourages, and provides a framework for, the development of large experts. LIL and SDL seem to be necessary, if not yet sufficient, types of inter- and intraexpert communication primitives. Fourth, the model has the practical advantages of being developmentally modular, and realistic to implement on a large scale. Experts can be written by different researchers, as long as the LIL and SDL conventions are followed. Experts can be stored on disk, and reside in core only on demand from the current sentence.

We are convinced that distributed word experts will prove to be the only acceptable course in modeling human language. In the WEP, we have only scratched the surface of the larger theory. But we hope our ideas are helping to bring that theory into better focus.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We extend our thanks to all members of the AI group for their comments and contributions to this research: Milt Grinberg, Rich Wood, Randy Trigg, Bob Bane, Jim Reggia, Liz Allen, Jim Williams, Mike Konard, Bruce Israel, Bob Krovetz.

The research described herein is funded by NASA, under grant NSG-7253. Their support of this basic research is deeply appreciated.


REFERENCES

Bobrow D., & Winograd T. "An overview of KRL, a knowledge representation language". "Cognitive Science", 1977, 1 (No. 1).

Marcus M. "An overview of a theory of syntactic recognition for natural language". "Doctoral dissertation, MIT AI Memo 531", 1979.

Rieger C. "Viewing parsing as word sense discrimination". In W. Dingwall (Ed.), "A survey of linguistic science". Greylock, 1977.

Rieger C. The importance of multiple choice. Proc. TINLAP-2, Urbana, Ill., 1978 (also University of Maryland Computer Science TR-656).

Rieger C., & Small S. Word expert parsing. Proc. IJCAI-29, Tokyo, 1979.

Riesbeck C. Computational understanding: Analysis of sentences and context. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford AI Memo 238, 1974.

Small S. Word expert parsing: A theory of distributed word-based natural language understanding. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland computer Science TR-954, 1980.

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Strategies for Natural Language Processing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Abstracts xvii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - The State of the Art In Natural-Language Understanding 3
  • Acknowledgments 30
  • References 30
  • II - Implementation Issues 33
  • 2 - Realistic Language Comprehension 37
  • References 53
  • 3 - Natural Communication Between Person and Computer 55
  • Acknowledgments 86
  • References 86
  • 4 - Parsing and Comprehending With Word Experts (a Theory And Its Realization) 89
  • Acknowledgments 147
  • References 147
  • 5 - An Overview of the Frump System 149
  • Acknowledgments 175
  • References 175
  • 6 - A Framework for Conceptual Analyzers 177
  • References 196
  • III - Conversation And Discourse 199
  • 7 - Conversation Failure 203
  • References 220
  • 8 - Towards an Understanding Of Coherence in Discourse 223
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 242
  • 9 - Beyond Question Answering 245
  • Acknowledgments 271
  • References 271
  • 10 - Adversary Arguments and The Logic of Personal Attacks 275
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 294
  • IV - Knowledge Representation 295
  • 11 - Inference and Learning In Computer Model of The Development of Language Comprehension in a Young Child 299
  • Acknowledgments 325
  • References 325
  • 12 - Inferring Building Blocks For Knowledge Representation 327
  • Acknowledgments 343
  • References 343
  • 13 - Points: A Theory of the Structure Of Stories in Memory 345
  • References 373
  • 14 - Plot Units: a Narrative Summarization Strategy 375
  • Acknowledgments 411
  • References 411
  • V - Theoretical Issues 413
  • 15 - Metaphor: an Inescapable Phenomenon In Natural-Language Comprehension 415
  • Acknowledgments 432
  • References 433
  • 16 - Context Recognition In Language Cornprehension 435
  • Acknowledgments 453
  • References 453
  • 17 - Reminding and Memory Organization: an Introduction To Mops 455
  • Acknowledgments 493
  • References 493
  • 18 - Some Thoughts on Procedural Semantics 495
  • Acknowledgments 515
  • Notes on Contributors 517
  • Subject Index 523
  • Index 529
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