Strategies for Natural Language Processing

By Wendy G. Lehnert; Martin H. Ringle | Go to book overview

SUMMARY

Stories constitute a subset of coherent natural-language texts. To establish text coherence. a great deal of knowledge is needed about people's goals and plans. The process by which this knowledge can be applied is termed explanationdriven understanding. It uses what has been heard previously to help disambiguate subsequent events, but does not constrain the understanding process to "canned" event sequences.

For texts to be stories, they must be poignant in addition to being coherent. This point structure of a story serves to organize the representation of a story in memory so that more important episodes are more likely to be remembered than trivial events. Points also serve to generate expectations about what will happen next in a story, because a story reader is looking for the point of a story as the text is being read.

An important class of story points deals with human dramatic situations, and these most often contain a set of interacting goals that create difficulties for a character. A taxonomy of these goal relationships and the situations they give rise to is useful for detecting a point of a story, as well as for establishing its coherence as a text. When a goal-relationship situation occurs as a problem-point component, it will occur as part of a point prototype. These prototypes specify those aspects of the situations that should be mentioned in order to produce a dramatic effect.

The notion of a story point competes with the idea of story grammars as a way to characterize story texts. The story-grammar approach attempts to define a story as a text having a certain form, whereas the story-point idea defines a story as a text having a certain content. The form of a story is viewed here as being a function of the content of the story, not a reasonably independent object. Understanding stories, then, is not so much a question of understanding the structure of a text, but of understanding the point of what the text is about.


REFERENCES

Black J. B., & Wilensky R. ( 1979) "An evaluation of story grammars". Cognitive Science 3 (No. 3).

Bower G. H. ( 1976) "Experiments on story understanding and recall". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 28.

Charniak, E. ( 1972) Towards a model of children's story comprehension (AI TR-266). MIT, Cambridge, Mass.

Cullingford R. E. ( 1978) Script application: Computer understanding of newspaper stories (Research Rep. #116). Yale University, New Haven.

DeJong G. F. ( 1979) Skimming stories in real time: An experiment in integrated understanding (Research Rep. #158). Yale University, New Haven.

Kintsch W., & vanDijk T. A. ( 1975) "Recalling and summarizing stories". Language, 40,98-116.

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Strategies for Natural Language Processing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Abstracts xvii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - The State of the Art In Natural-Language Understanding 3
  • Acknowledgments 30
  • References 30
  • II - Implementation Issues 33
  • 2 - Realistic Language Comprehension 37
  • References 53
  • 3 - Natural Communication Between Person and Computer 55
  • Acknowledgments 86
  • References 86
  • 4 - Parsing and Comprehending With Word Experts (a Theory And Its Realization) 89
  • Acknowledgments 147
  • References 147
  • 5 - An Overview of the Frump System 149
  • Acknowledgments 175
  • References 175
  • 6 - A Framework for Conceptual Analyzers 177
  • References 196
  • III - Conversation And Discourse 199
  • 7 - Conversation Failure 203
  • References 220
  • 8 - Towards an Understanding Of Coherence in Discourse 223
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 242
  • 9 - Beyond Question Answering 245
  • Acknowledgments 271
  • References 271
  • 10 - Adversary Arguments and The Logic of Personal Attacks 275
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 294
  • IV - Knowledge Representation 295
  • 11 - Inference and Learning In Computer Model of The Development of Language Comprehension in a Young Child 299
  • Acknowledgments 325
  • References 325
  • 12 - Inferring Building Blocks For Knowledge Representation 327
  • Acknowledgments 343
  • References 343
  • 13 - Points: A Theory of the Structure Of Stories in Memory 345
  • References 373
  • 14 - Plot Units: a Narrative Summarization Strategy 375
  • Acknowledgments 411
  • References 411
  • V - Theoretical Issues 413
  • 15 - Metaphor: an Inescapable Phenomenon In Natural-Language Comprehension 415
  • Acknowledgments 432
  • References 433
  • 16 - Context Recognition In Language Cornprehension 435
  • Acknowledgments 453
  • References 453
  • 17 - Reminding and Memory Organization: an Introduction To Mops 455
  • Acknowledgments 493
  • References 493
  • 18 - Some Thoughts on Procedural Semantics 495
  • Acknowledgments 515
  • Notes on Contributors 517
  • Subject Index 523
  • Index 529
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