Strategies for Natural Language Processing

By Wendy G. Lehnert; Martin H. Ringle | Go to book overview

cated, it would be appropriate to study individual differences across subjects. Perhaps it would even be possible to analyze a subject's summarization behavior on a few key texts, and then predict subsequent summarization behavior on completely different texts. For the moment, however, our job is to design a system that can generate reasonable summaries for a variety of narrative texts. This chapter has attempted to show how such a goal may be realized in the near future.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is indebted to Roger Schank, Chris Riesbeck, Jim Meehan, Art Graesser, Haj Ross, and Marty Ringle for their extensive and helpful comments on various drafts of this chapter. This work was supported in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency under contract N00014-75-C-1111 and in part by the National Science Foundation under contract 1ST7918463.


REFERENCES

Black J. B., & Wilensky R. ( 1979) "An evaluation of story grammars". Cognitive Science, 3(No. 3), 213-230

Cullingford R. E. ( 1978) Script application: Computer understanding of newspaper stories (Department of Computer Science Research Report #116). Yale University, New Haven

DeJong G. F. ( 1979) Skimming stories in real time: An experiment in integrated understanding (Department of Computer Science Research Report #156). Yale University, New Haven

deRivera. J. ( 1977) "A structural theory of the emotions". Psychological issues, (Monograph No. 40) New York: International Universities Press

Dyer M., & Lehnert W. ( 1980) Memory organization and search processes for narratives (Department of Computer Science Research Report #175). Yale University, New Haven

Graesser A. ( 1981) Prose comprehension beyond the word. New York: Springer-Verlag

Gracsser A. C., Robertson S. P., & Anderson P. A. ( 1981) "Incorporating inferences in narrative representations: A study of how and why". Cognitive Psychology. 13(No. 1), 1-26

Kintsch W. ( 1974) The representation of meaning in memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Kintsch W., & Keenan J. ( 1973) "Reading rate and retention as a function of the number of propositions in the base structure of sentences". Cognitive Psychology, 5, 257-274

Kintsch W., & vanDijk T. ( 1975) "Recalling and summarizing stories". Language, 40, 98-116

Kintsch W., & vanDijk T. ( 1978) "Toward a model of text comprehension and production" Psychological Review, 85, 363-394

Lehnert W. G. ( 1978) The process of question answering. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Lehnert W., Black J., & Reiser B. ( 1981) Summarizing narratives. 7th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Vancouver, British Columbia

Lehnert W. G., Dyer M. G., Johnson P. N., Yang C. J., & Harley S. ( 1981) BORIS -- An experiment in in-depth understanding of narratives (Research Rep. #188). Department of Computer Science, Yale University. New Haven.

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Strategies for Natural Language Processing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Abstracts xvii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - The State of the Art In Natural-Language Understanding 3
  • Acknowledgments 30
  • References 30
  • II - Implementation Issues 33
  • 2 - Realistic Language Comprehension 37
  • References 53
  • 3 - Natural Communication Between Person and Computer 55
  • Acknowledgments 86
  • References 86
  • 4 - Parsing and Comprehending With Word Experts (a Theory And Its Realization) 89
  • Acknowledgments 147
  • References 147
  • 5 - An Overview of the Frump System 149
  • Acknowledgments 175
  • References 175
  • 6 - A Framework for Conceptual Analyzers 177
  • References 196
  • III - Conversation And Discourse 199
  • 7 - Conversation Failure 203
  • References 220
  • 8 - Towards an Understanding Of Coherence in Discourse 223
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 242
  • 9 - Beyond Question Answering 245
  • Acknowledgments 271
  • References 271
  • 10 - Adversary Arguments and The Logic of Personal Attacks 275
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 294
  • IV - Knowledge Representation 295
  • 11 - Inference and Learning In Computer Model of The Development of Language Comprehension in a Young Child 299
  • Acknowledgments 325
  • References 325
  • 12 - Inferring Building Blocks For Knowledge Representation 327
  • Acknowledgments 343
  • References 343
  • 13 - Points: A Theory of the Structure Of Stories in Memory 345
  • References 373
  • 14 - Plot Units: a Narrative Summarization Strategy 375
  • Acknowledgments 411
  • References 411
  • V - Theoretical Issues 413
  • 15 - Metaphor: an Inescapable Phenomenon In Natural-Language Comprehension 415
  • Acknowledgments 432
  • References 433
  • 16 - Context Recognition In Language Cornprehension 435
  • Acknowledgments 453
  • References 453
  • 17 - Reminding and Memory Organization: an Introduction To Mops 455
  • Acknowledgments 493
  • References 493
  • 18 - Some Thoughts on Procedural Semantics 495
  • Acknowledgments 515
  • Notes on Contributors 517
  • Subject Index 523
  • Index 529
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